Norsk

Some notes while learning Norwegian from Mangolanguages (which I can access through my local library)

Fancy letters: æ, ø, å

Notes

  • Forms of address aren't really used
  • "Takk for sist" is often used when greeting people you haven't seen in a while
  • "Hallo" is mostly for answering the phone, "hei" is an informal greeting, and "god dag" is for more formal situations
  • A common way of saying "how are you" / "how is it going" is "hvordan går det", and "hvordan har du det" is more used for "how are you feeling"
  • "Du" (you) is used for the subject, as in "Du er Ben" (you are Ben)
  • "Deg" (you) is used for the object, as in "å treffe deg" (to meet you)
  • "Hvordan" is used for open ended questions, such as "hvordan er været" (how is the weather)
  • "Hvor" is used for specific questions, usually with a descriptor, such as "hvor ofte" (how often)
  • "Går" is used for walking, or for expressing the idea of motion when motion does not actually occur
  • "Drar" is either "is leaving", or used to talk about going somewhere or doing something "jeg drar hjem" (I am going home)
  • "Det" is without gender or their
  • "Den" is masc. and fem
  • "De" is it/that/those or they
  • "Ha" is more exclamatory? as in "ha det" (literally, have it)
  • "Hva skjer" is informal: "what's up?"
  • The definite article (the) gets attached to the end of the noun
  • Possessives can be placed before or after nouns. If the possessive is placed before, it is indefinite, if it is placed after, is is definite (this is more common)
  • Questions are created by placing the verb before the noun ("har du?" is a question - have you - "du har" is a statement - you have)
  • "Også" means "too", "also", and "as well"
  • There is a gender distinction for cousins, but not for grandchildren
  • All nouns have a grammatical gender, male, female, or neutral, and each has an indefinite and definite article associated with it
  • Future acts are indicated by a verb in present tense combined with an adverb like "later", "tomorrow", etc, or a verb in the infinitive combined with an auxiliary verb like skal
  • Norwegian is generally quite reserved. "Elske" is only really used for someone you love romantically, and "glad i" is used for others (including family)
  • Verbs have the same form for all subjects
  • "-r" is characteristic of present tense
  • There is no conjugation for the present continuation like there is in English, simply use the present tense instead
  • In Norwegian, words describing nationality are not capitalized
  • "Studerte" implies higher level education, such as college or university
  • "-te" is an ending which implies past tense
  • Like in the present, questions in the paste tense are formed by switching the verb and subject; there is no "did"
  • "Den" goes with a noun in its definite form, so "den skolen" literally means "that the school"
  • The ending "-et" is the neutral singular definite article
  • "That" is den and det in Norwegian. Den is used with male and female nouns, and det is used with neutral nouns (both go with nouns in definite form)

Phrases

  • You're welcome: vær så god (be so good)
  • What's up: hva skjer (what is happening)
  • Take care: ha det bra (have it good)
  • Over there: der borte (there gone)
  • How are you doing: hvordan har du det (how have you it)
  • You're welcome: vær så god (be so good)
  • Take care: ha det bra (have it good)
  • Over there: der borte (there gone)

Lexicon

Conjunctions

and: og (ogh)

Indefinite Articles

a{m}: en (ehn)

a{f}: ei (aiy)

a{n}: et (eht)

Prepositions

for: for (fohr)

in: i (ee)

at: ved (veeyeh)

Interjections

hi: hei (hy)

hello: hallo (HAHLLoh)

goodbye: ha det

good night: natta (NAHTTah)

wow: jøss (yuhss)

Pronouns

I: jeg (yai)

you (sub.): du (?)

you (obj.): deg (dye)

what: hva (vaah)

it: det (dayah) / den(dehn)

he: han (hahnn)

she: hun (huhnn)

they: de (dee)

my: min (meen)

that: det (dayah) / den (dehnn)

our: vår (vohr)

her: henne (HEHNNeh)

me: meg (mayeh)

which: hvilter (VILKeht)

Prepositions

to: å (oh)

with: hos (hoos)

of: av (aahv) / om (ohmm) / i (ee)

from: fra (fraah)

on: på (poh)

Adverbs

too: også (OHsoh)

how, open question: hvordan (VOORdahnn)

how, specific: hvor (vohr?)

often: ofte (OHftuh?)

well: bra (braah)

so: så (soh)

yes: ja (yah)

there: der (daar)

here: har (haar)

really: virkelig (VIRkehli)

where: hvor (VOOR)

really: jaså (YAHSSah)

very: veldig (VEHLLdee)

well: godt (gohtt)

not: ikke (IKKeh)

that: som (sohm)

no: nei (nye)

of course: selvfølgelig (SEHLLfuhllgehli)

Adjectives

pleasant / nice: hyggelig (HIGGehli)

going: går (gohr)

going: drar (draahr?)

fine: fint (feeyint)

later: senere (SEEYEHnehreh)

good: god (gooh)

excellent: utmerket (OOTmarkeht)

bad: dårlig (DOHli)

so-so: sånn passe (sohnn PAHSSeh)

happy: glad (glaah)

sad: trist

whole: hele (HEEYEHleh)

married: gift (yift)

great: fantastisk (fahnTAHStisk)

pretty: pen (peeyehn)

handsome: kjekk (Hyehkk)

young: ung (oong)

old: gammel ( GAHMMehl)

tall: høy (huhy)

short: lav (laahv)

skinny: tynn (tinn)

fat: tjukk (hyuhkk)

great: fin (feen)

a little: litt

Swedish: svensk (svehnnsk)

Finnish: finsk (finnsk)

Russian: russisk (REWSSisk)

much / a lot: mye (MEEyeh)

born: født (fuhtt)

Verbs

to meet: treffe (TREHFFeh)

is / am: er (ar)

am called: heter (HEEYEHtehr)

have: ha (haah)

have: har (hahr)

see: ser (seeyehr)

is happening: skjer (shehr)

be: vær (vaar)

gone: borte (BOORTeh)

live: bor (boohr)

think: synes (SINehs)

would like: vil gjerne (vil YAARNeh)

will: skal (skahll)

introduce: introdusere (INtrooDEWseeyehreh)

let's: la oss (lah ohss)

take: ta (taah)

like: like (LEEKeh)

love: elske (EHLSkeh)

fond of: glad i (happy in)

come: kommer: (KOHMMehr)

speak: snakker (SNAHKKehr)

am learning: lærer (LAArehr)

speak: snakker (SNAHKKehr)

understand: forstår (FOHSHtohr)

studied: studerte (STEWdeeyehrteh)

heard: hørt (huhrt)

Nouns

weather: været (vaahreh?)

home: hjem (yem?) / heim (hIIm?)

last time: sist

thanks: takk (tahkk)

tomorrow: i morgen (ee MAWawrn)

night: natt (nahtt)

day: dag (daahg)

morning: morgen (MAWawrn)

sister: søsteren (SUHStehrehn)

the sister: søsteren (SUHStahn)

brother: bror (broohr)

the mom: mammaen (MAHMMahn)

the dad: pappaen (PAHPPahn)

the family: familien (FAHmeelyehn)

father: far (faahr)

mother: mor (moohr)

aunt: tante (TAHNNteh)

uncle: onkel (OONGkel)

cousin {m}: fetter (FEHTTehr)

cousin {f}: kusine (KEWseeneh)

son: søn (suhnn)

daughter: datter (DAHTTehr)

engagement: forlovelse (fohrLOHvehlseh)

marriage: ekteskap (EHKtehSKAAHP)

husband: mann (mahnn)

wife: kone (KOOHneh)

parents: foreldre (fohrEHLdreh)

children: barn (baarhn)

grandparents: besteforeldre (BEHStehfohrEHLdreh)

grandmother: bestemor (BEHStehMOOHR)

grandfather: bestefar (BEHStehFAAHR)

grand(son/daughter): barnebarn (BAHRNehhbaahrn)

niece: niese (NEEyehseh)

nephew: nevø (NEHvuh)

friend{f}: venninne (VEHNNinneh)

coffee: kaffe (KAHFFeh)

personality: personlighet (parSOOHNliheeyeht)

friend{n}: venn (vehnn)

friend{m}: kamerat (kahmehRAAHT)

acquaintance: bekjent (BEH-Hyehnnt)

stranger: fremmed (FREHMMehd)

roommate: romkamerat (ROOMMkahmehRAAHT)

tea: te (teeyeh)

café: kafé (KAHfayeh)

Norwegian: norsk (nohshk)

website: nettside (NEHTTseedeh)

English: engelske (EHNGehlske)

Sweden: Sverige (SVARyeh)

Finland: Finland (FINNlahnn)

Russia: russland (REWSSlahn)

state: stat (staaht)

city: by (bee)

history: historie (HIStoorhiyeh)

school: skole (SKOOHleh)

the school: skolen (SKOOHlehn)

university: universitet (EWniVAHSHiTEEHT)

the university: universitet (EWniVAHSHiTEEHteh)